This is the second of posts about the new features in C# 3.0. You can read the first post here. Well this was long overdue, but anyway, here it is.
When we are using type inference which was introduced in C# 3.0, the compiler determines the type of the variable at compile time. Here is an example of type inference.
Here the variable msg will be of type string and offset will be of type int. You have to note that these variables have to be initialized and can only be used as local variables or else you will get a compile time error as is the case with globalStr and temp.
Anonymous types are useful when we need to create an object of a class and initialize it without having a concrete class. Let me explain this with an example.
Here we create a type product with properties Id an Name. The good thing about this code is that there is no Product class present. The variable product does have a type though but we don’t know its name. We just get a class with properties Id and Name already initialized.
Lambda expressions are a refined way of defining your methods. Anonymous methods were introduced in C# 2.0 which helped us to declare a method inline which was much simpler than the earlier version ( will show an example shortly ). Then came lambdas in C# 3.0 which took anonymous methods to a different level. Lets look at an example of all 3 forms.
Here I have written 3 methods which basically creates an integer list and finds out all even numbers in it. The first method is done using the traditional delegate pattern. Here we create a predicate pointing to a method which checks for a number to be even. Then we call the FindAll method for the list and pass this predicate to get the list of even numbers. As you can see the IsEven method might not be used outside the scope of this method. To solve this issue C# introduced anonymous methods. In anonymous methods we can declare the method inline as can be seen the example. This saves us from writing a different method. When you look at the third method we see that a single line of code is doing all the work. In fact i => (i % 2) == 0 is all that is needed to do the functionality that our predicate or delegate did. Lambda expression are internally converted into anonymous delegates. Just a quicker and neat way of doing things.